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Preparing for a change at the top, the European Central Bank has decided to keep interest rates on hold and at their all-time lows. Mario Draghi, who had his last monetary policy meeting as president of the ECB, is leaving after an eight-year term during which key rates were never raised. At the subsequent press conference, Draghi defended the bank’s monetary policy which has received a serious amount of criticism from various corners of Europe.
‘Super Mario’ Defends Controversial Negative Rate Policy
Europe’s central bank announced Thursday that the benchmark borrowing rate remains at 0% and the main deposit rate, the one banks face when leaving money at the ECB, stays at -0.5%. The record low was approved in September when the financial institution also decided to restart its stimulus program. In November, the bank will begin purchasing 20 billion euros’ worth of bonds a month and the quantitative easing is an open-ended commitment. Within the previous asset purchase program, which ended in December 2018, ECB spent over €2.6 trillion. The bank first started buying bonds in early 2015.
ECB expects key interest rates to remain at their present or even lower levels until inflation in the common currency area moves closer to 2%. Despite all efforts in that direction, the indicator has persistently remained well below the target, reaching a record low of 0% in the spring of 2016. But “Super Mario,” whose fans believe he has saved Europe’s monetary union and avoided deflation, defended the bank’s current monetary policy. Improvements in the economy, he told journalists after the meeting, have more than offset the side effects of negative rates.
Draghi also revealed that today’s decision has been approved unanimously, in contrast with last month’s policy change, when several governors opposed the restarting of the bond-buying program. The outgoing head of the ECB insisted that was not a problem. All central banks have disagreements when monetary policy issues are discussed which is part of the ongoing debate, he noted to the media in Frankfurt.
However, ECB’s loose monetary policy has been criticized by leading financial institutions. “They’ve already turned on the money tap to the limit,” Deutsche Bank CEO Christian Sewing recently stated, stressing that very few economists believe cheaper money would have any positive effect. A couple of months ago, the head of another large European bank, ING CEO Ralph Hamers, warned of the risks lurking behind central bank money printing. Injecting more cheap money won’t bolster weak confidence, Hamers told reporters, adding that he doesn’t think QE is the right recipe as there is no shortage of money. During his Q&A session today, Mario Draghi also addressed the IMF’s concerns about long-term negative rates, emphasizing that the ECB is keeping an eye on these risks.
Germany Drags the Eurozone Toward Stagnation
“From all viewpoints,” an economic downturn is the main risk, Draghi warned. And there are mounting signs that Germany, where QE has been challenged in courts as a form of central bank financing of government and negative interest rates have been blamed for depleting savings, is on the doorstep of a crisis. Its industry is suffering from uncertainty surrounding global trade and Brexit. In October, for the first time in six years, German companies cut more jobs than they created, the Guardian reported. The prolonged decline in German output and exports means the Federal Republic is heading into recession, dragging the whole Eurozone toward stagnation.
Mario Draghi has been calling on European governments to spend more money in order to stimulate the economy and avoid the crisis. In that, he has been joined by his successor, Christine Lagarde, who until last month was managing the International Monetary Fund and will assume the office of President of the European Central Bank on November 1.
What distinguishes the two, at least on first glance, is their attitude towards decentralized digital money. While in May Draghi insisted that “Bitcoins or anything like that are not really currencies,” Lagarde views cryptocurrencies, where opportunities for saving are available, as disruptors that are having an impact on incumbents, or the commercial banks. In the current environment, she believes that:
Central banks and supervisors need to ensure the safety of the financial sector, but also to be open to the opportunities provided by change.
“In the case of new technologies – including digital currencies – that means being alert to risks in terms of financial stability, privacy or criminal activities, and ensuring appropriate regulation is in place to steer technology towards the public good. But it also means recognizing the wider social benefits from innovation and allowing them space to develop,” Lagarde said in a statement to the Economic and Monetary Affairs Committee of the European Parliament in September.
Do you expect to see a change in the ECB policy toward cryptocurrencies under its new president? Tell us in the comments section below.
Images courtesy of Shutterstock, ECB.
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The Trump administration plans to impose tariffs on $ 7.5 billion worth of European imports—from gouda cheese to single-malt whiskey to large aircraft—beginning Oct. 18 to retaliate against illegal European Union subsidies for aviation giant Airbus. The latest escalation in the administration’s tariffs will open a new chapter…
The European Central Bank (ECB) and a number of countries in the region have stepped up their efforts in response to Facebook’s Libra, which has revived a competing ECB project for instant payments. As Facebook engages Switzerland’s financial regulator, the ECB clarifies how Libra can be regulated under EU laws.
A Wake-Up Call and ECB’s Project Revived
Facebook’s proposed Libra digital currency has given governments worldwide a run for their money. European Central Bank board member Benoit Coeure calls Libra “a wake-up call,” after discussing it at last week’s meeting of eurozone finance ministers in Helsinki. Amid concerns over a sovereign threat, 26 regulators worldwide, including the Bank of England and the U.S. Federal Reserve, reportedly met with representatives of Libra in Basel on Monday to discuss the scope and design of Libra.
Coeure told the press Friday that Libra had revived efforts of an ECB-backed project for real-time payments in the eurozone, the Target Instant Payment Settlement (TIPS). The project could allow consumers to use electronic cash, directly deposited at the ECB without the need for bank accounts, financial intermediaries or clearing counterparties. Just like with Facebook’s plans, financial intermediaries will be unnecessary in this new ECB system. “TIPS offers final and irrevocable settlement of instant payments in euro, at any time of day and on any day of the year,” the ECB described.
The project was launched last year and could last months or even years, Coeure revealed, adding that the technical feasibility remains to be seen and opposition from banks is likely. In addition, “We also need to step up our thinking on a central bank digital currency,” he suggested. France’s Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire said last week that the European Union should create a common set of rules for cryptocurrencies to counter the risks posed by Libra.
Strong Opposition by France and Germany
France and Germany have reportedly agreed to block Libra due to the risks the digital currency could pose to their financial sectors, the French finance ministry said. The two countries jointly issued a statement Friday, stating:
France and Germany consider that the Libra project, as set out in Facebook’s blueprint, fails to convince that those risks will be properly addressed … We believe that no private entity can claim monetary power, which is inherent to the sovereignty of nations.
Le Maire believes that Libra should not be allowed to operate in Europe while concerns persist about sovereignty and persistent financial risks. “We encourage European central banks to accelerate work on issues around possible public digital currency solutions,” he added in the joint statement with Germany’s Finance Minister Olaf Scholz. The two countries further called on banks to work on improving European payment systems at the European level.
Swiss License for Libra, New Stablecoin Guidance
Meanwhile, the Libra Association has engaged the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority (Finma). The regulator has confirmed that the association has requested an assessment of how Finma would classify its planned Libra project including the issuance of a stablecoin under Swiss supervisory law.
Finma revealed that, based on information provided so far, such a project would fall under financial market infrastructure regulation and would require its payment system license, under the Financial Market Infrastructure Act (FMIA). The requirements under the Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures would also apply to the management of cyber risks. Swiss payment systems are subject to the Anti-Money Laundering Act.
Moreover, the FMIA sets out additional requirements for services that increase the risks of a payment system. “Due to the issuance of Libra payment tokens, the services planned by the Libra project would clearly go beyond those of a pure payment system and therefore be subject to such additional requirements,” the regulator clarified, adding:
A necessary condition for being granted a licence as a payment system would be that the returns and risks associated with the management of the reserve were borne entirely by the Libra Association and not – as in the case of a fund provider – by the ‘stablecoin’ holders.
In addition, Finma has updated its stablecoin guidance, which supplements its existing guidelines for initial coin offerings (ICOs). The regulator has acknowledged the rising number of stablecoin projects since mid-2018.
Finma detailed that the requirements for stablecoins may differ based on which assets they are backed by — such as currencies, commodities, real estate or securities — and the legal rights of its holders. “Money laundering, securities trading, banking, fund management and financial infrastructure regulation can all be of relevance,” Finma elaborated.
ECB Clarifies Libra’s Regulatory Challenges
European Central Bank executive board member Yves Mersch outlined the ECB’s approach to regulating Libra earlier this month. He described some “extremely concerning” differences between Libra and other cryptocurrencies. Firstly, he explained that “Libra’s ecosystem is not only complex, it is actually cartel-like,” citing several key areas that the Libra Association will have control over the coin’s functionalities. Unlike the decentralized and disintermediary nature of cryptocurrencies, he said that “similarly to public money Libra will actually be highly centralized, with Facebook and its partners acting as quasi-sovereign issuers of currency.”
Mersch raised several concerns regarding Libra such as its lack of a global lender of last resort and the limited liability of the Libra Association members. It is also devoid of the equivalent of a deposit guarantee scheme to protect its holders’ interests during a crisis, the executive detailed. He further pointed out that “the fact that Libra is backed by a basket of sovereign currency-denominated assets appears to defeat the very purpose of its issuance as a private currency.” Mersch then proceeded to outline some legal and regulatory challenges of Libra:
The first challenge concerns Libra’s fundamental legal nature. The choice is, essentially, whether to treat Libra as e-money, as a financial instrument or as a virtual currency.
In his view, Libra does not appear to qualify as e-money, as it does not embody a claim of its holders against the Libra Association. The second option is to treat it as a transferable security or a different type of financial instrument, which means that both the Libra Association and any entities providing investment services through Libra coins would fall within the remit of the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive. Lastly, if it were to qualify as a virtual currency then both Calibra and its authorized resellers would become subject to the obligations and registration requirements under the Anti-Money Laundering Directive.
Another challenge is to ensure that the relevant EU and member state regulatory and supervisory authorities can assert jurisdiction over Libra and its network, Mersch conveyed, adding that there is also the need for cross-border cooperation and coordination. “Because Libra will be used across borders, it is a matter of international interest.” He elaborated:
Its global nature would also call for a global regulatory and supervisory response to avoid regulatory arbitrage, ensure consistency of outcomes and guarantee the efficiency of public policy responses to Libra.
Mersch pointed out the joint efforts by the global community to mitigate risks associated with Libra, including efforts by the G7 countries, the G20 countries, and the Financial Stability Board (FSB). In its recently published report on how Libra could disrupt the financial system, the European Parliament wrote that “an international agreement is needed on harmonizing existing rules for crypto tokens.” The legislative body of the European Union believes that “Co-regulatory oversight of the Libra operation scheme by both state-operators and stakeholders would be needed to prevent money laundering, illicit transactions and consumer fraud.”
What do you think of how the ECB and European countries are responding to Facebook’s Libra? Let us know in the comments section below.
Images courtesy of Shutterstock.
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Weather conditions that brought a heat wave to Europe last week are spreading to the Arctic, where scientists predict they could trigger one of Greenland’s biggest ice melts on record.
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Germany’s Ursula von der Leyen has been elected as the European Commission’s first female president.
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The annual Bastille Day celebration in Paris this year was not just about showcasing France, but military cooperation among European continues.
Coinbase Card is being made available in six new countries across Europe. The service enables users to spend their digital funds in-store and online, supporting all crypto assets available to trade on the Coinbase platform such as bitcoin cash.
Coinbase Card Expands Across Europe
San Francisco-based cryptocurrency exchange Coinbase has announced that it is expanding its Visa debit card service in six new European countries. Coinbase Card, which was launched in the U.K. in April, will now be made available to customers in Spain, Germany, France, Italy, Ireland, and the Netherlands. The service enables account holders from the supported countries to spend their crypto balances in a familiar way to anyone with a debit or credit card.
The Coinbase-powered cards are issued by Paysafe Financial Services, part of the same multinational online payments group which operates Neteller and Skrill, and is regulated by the U.K’s Financial Conduct Authority. Customers of the exchange who wish to order the card need to sign up for a waitlist using the associated mobile app. Once the list is closed their balances will be spendable via an in-app virtual card while a physical card will be sent in the mail.
Crypto Cards Bring New Options for Spending BCH
The card supports all digital assets available on the Coinbase platform such as bitcoin cash (BCH) and customers can use it to pay in millions of locations where Visa is accepted, as well as to make fiat cash withdrawals from ATMs. The company has explained that when customers use their cards it instantly converts the selected crypto assets into fiat which is received by the merchant.
If you are not a Coinbase account holder or reside in an unsupported country, there are a host of other options available for using your BCH with a debit card. Hong Kong headquartered platform Crypto.com recently added support for BCH, Spain-based Bitnovo’s Bitsa card is another option and you can find additional BCH supporting cards here.
What do you think about the crypto card from Coinbase expanding across Europe? Share your thoughts in the comments section below.
Images courtesy of Shutterstock.
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Stocks rose in Europe on Monday, after a mixed day in Asia, as pro-EU forces retained a majority in the 28-nation bloc’s parliament despite the rise of nationalist parties in a region-wide vote.
Germany’s DAX climbed 0.4% to 12,061 and the CAC 40 in France added 0.2% to 5,326. With U.S. markets…
• European elections explained in graphics
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