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Trump Has Some Branding Advice for Boeing

April 15, 2019 |

On the heels of American Airlines’ Sunday announcement that it would keep its Boeing 737 Max fleet grounded until at least Aug. 19, President Trump weighed in with some advice for the aircraft’s maker. “What do I know about branding, maybe nothing (but I did become President!), but if…

In the age of legal marijuana, some employers drop ‘zero tolerance’ drug tests

April 12, 2019 |

When Rye Electric was founded in Orange County five years ago, it screened all prospective workers for drugs. If a test showed traces of cannabis, the applicant was nixed.

But the fast-growing construction company, which has a millennial-heavy workforce, has since adapted to the times. “We still…

L.A. Times – Business

Some Mueller Investigators Are Upset With Barr

April 4, 2019 |

Some of Bob Mueller’s investigators say President Trump is getting off too easy, the New York Times reports. According to inside sources, these investigators believe Attorney General William Barr’s four-page letter to Congress summarizing the Mueller report failed to adequately convey Trump’s troubling actions. Details remain scant—it’s even unclear…

Some baby cough syrups recalled over risks of bacteria contamination

March 22, 2019 |

A cough syrup for babies is being recalled because it could be contaminated with a bacteria that can cause vomiting or diarrhea, according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
FOX News


Airplane groundings are rare. Here are some of history’s biggest

March 18, 2019 |

This past week reminded the world that grounding an entire type of airliner because of safety concerns is a big deal — and it happens very rarely. – RSS Channel – World

Satoshi’s Pre-Release Bitcoin Code Contains Some Fascinating Findings

March 14, 2019 |

Cryptocurrency supporters have been discussing an early version of the original Bitcoin source code that surfaced this week. An old forum post and mailing list letter written by Satoshi suggests there was a private version of the code distributed to a few people before the launch of the network on Jan. 3, 2009.

Also Read: Thailand Approves Country’s First ICO Portal

The Pre-Release of Bitcoin and a Discarded Genesis Block With Completely Different Hash

Bitcoiners have been conversing about Satoshi Nakamoto’s original Bitcoin source code over the last few hours and whether the pseudonymous creator distributed a private version to others before the official launch. The discussion started on March 13 when well-known BTC proponent Francis Pouliot shared a very old version of Satoshi’s source code and a letter from the creator detailing that he sent the “main files” to James A. Donald. “I sent you the main files (available by request at the moment, full release soon),” Nakamoto stated on Nov. 17, 2008.

Satoshi's Pre-Release Bitcoin Code Contains Some Fascinating Findings
A mailing list response to James A. Donald on Nov. 17, 2008 explains that Satoshi gave files to a few people before the launch on Jan. 3, 2009.

In the source code that was distributed to member “Cryddit” there are some interesting finds in what is believed to be the earliest version of the Bitcoin code. For instance, the code mentions the term “bitcoin miner” which seems to be the first time Nakamoto describes these participants as miners. Interestingly, the term “miners” was not used in the original whitepaper – throughout the text they are referred to as “nodes.” Additionally, the term blockchain was really called the “timechain” according to Satoshi’s code given to Cryddit.

Satoshi's Pre-Release Bitcoin Code Contains Some Fascinating Findings
A screenshot from Jan. 3, 2009 (same date as genesis block), with an unreleased blockchain at block 213 and three other connections according to user Deepceleron on Dec. 23, 2013.

“The timechain is a tree-shaped structure starting with the genesis block at the root. With each block potentially having multiple candidates to be the next block. pprev and pnext link a path through the main/longest chain. A block index may have multiple pprev pointing back to it but pnext will only point forward to the longest branch or will be null if the block is not part of the longest chain,” the source code text explains.

The text continues:

Nodes collect new transactions into a block, hash them into a hash tree, and scan through nonce values to make the block’s hash satisfy proof-of-work requirements. When they solve the proof-of-work, they broadcast the block to everyone and the block is added to the timechain. The first transaction in the block is a special one that creates a new coin owned by the creator of the block.

Another intriguing find within the early code is the fact that Satoshi named Bitcoin’s smaller units a “coin” (1,000,000) and “cent” (10,000) rather than “satoshis,” the term most people use today. There’s also a line of text that talks about “atoms” and “user reviews” which refers to some sort of rating system.

Satoshi's Pre-Release Bitcoin Code Contains Some Fascinating Findings
According to Mike Hearn, this section of the code was meant for a P2P marketplace similar to Openbazaar but built into the Bitcoin protocol. The marketplace idea was discarded after the network launched.

According to early Bitcoin developer Mike Hearn, Satoshi had intended to integrate a peer-to-peer (P2P) marketplace inside the protocol but the creator never finished the code and the idea was shelved. The source also has a discarded genesis block in the code which has a completely different hash. Assuming the hash was the first genesis test block, it was produced on Sept. 10, 2008.

Satoshi's Pre-Release Bitcoin Code Contains Some Fascinating Findings
The smallest units in Bitcoin were not called satoshis but were dubbed “coin” and “cent” by the creator.

IRC Client, P2P Marketplace and a Virtual Poker Game

Besides the pre-code release before the launch on Jan. 3, 2009, the original 0.1.0 Bitcoin code also has some fascinating details. For example, the original Bitcoin software had an IRC client included, which aimed to create an easier way to bootstrap messaging. Further, the original repository that held Bitcoin’s 0.1.0 code also included the framework in order to create a virtual poker game which was added on April 16, 2008. After the official network launch, ideas like the P2P market and the virtual poker game never came to fruition. The IRC client stuck around for a few releases, but after Bitcoin version 0.8.2, support for IRC bootstrapping was removed completely.

Satoshi's Pre-Release Bitcoin Code Contains Some Fascinating Findings
Bitcoin also had a built-in virtual poker game that was never developed.

No one knows why Satoshi used certain definitions for Bitcoin terminology and why the creator decided to give up on the P2P market and poker application. The oldest available history of proof of an operating Bitcoin 0.1.0 version is a human-readable debug log. Satoshi worked on the Bitcoin code all the way up until version 0.3.19 as the chief maintainer, but subsequently left in 2010, handing the reins to Gavin Andresen. The pre-distributed code before the launch in 2009 is compelling, to say the least, for it provides an insight into the mind of Bitcoin’s enigmatic creator and his world-changing technology.

What do you think about the pre-release source code and some of the terms Satoshi used throughout the text? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.

Image credits: Shutterstock, Twitter, Francis Pouliot,, and Pixabay.

At there’s a bunch of free helpful services. For instance, have you seen our Tools page? You can even look up the exchange rate for a transaction in the past. Or calculate the value of your current holdings. Or create a paper wallet. And much more.

The post Satoshi’s Pre-Release Bitcoin Code Contains Some Fascinating Findings appeared first on Bitcoin News.

Bitcoin News

ICE makes more arrests at decoy university; some detainees being deported, authorities say

March 9, 2019 |

Federal immigration authorities say they have arrested more students enrolled at a sham Detroit-area university created by the Department of Homeland Security.
FOX News

Why are some icebergs green in Antarctica? Researchers think they’ve solved century-old mystery

March 5, 2019 |

The stunning sight of emerald green-colored icebergs has been documented for more than a century — in literature and beyond. 
FOX News

Some Call This Debt Solution ‘Pragmatic.’ Others, Cruel

March 1, 2019 |

A family of five in Germany that fell on hard times had one prized possession: their 1-year-old purebred pug, Edda. But after not being able to pay their bills, including an almost $ 90 annual dog tax levied by the city of Ahlen, a debt collector came up with what a…